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THE QUESTION OF DISTANCE ARISING FROM THE USE OF POLITE PRONOUNS FORMS IN ROMANIAN WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR USAGE IN LEGAL INTERVIEWS AND OFFICIAL WEBSITES

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 »  Articles Overview  »  Art of Translation and Interpreting  »  Interpreting  »  THE QUESTION OF DISTANCE ARISING FROM THE USE OF POLITE PRONOUNS FORMS IN ROMANIAN WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR USAGE IN LEGAL INTERVIEWS AND OFFICIAL WEBSITES

THE QUESTION OF DISTANCE ARISING FROM THE USE OF POLITE PRONOUNS FORMS IN ROMANIAN WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR USAGE IN LEGAL INTERVIEWS AND OFFICIAL WEBSITES

By Monica Zhekov | Published  06/20/2013 | Interpreting | Recommendation:
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Quicklink: http://pol.proz.com/doc/3814
Author:
Monica Zhekov
Wielka Brytania
angielski > rumuński translator
Członek od: Jun 16, 2009.
 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTERPRETARE CONSECUTIVĂ

1. INTRODUCTION

2. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE LEGAL INTERVIEW AND OFFICIAL WEBSITES TEXTUAL CHARACTERISTICS

3. CONSIDERATION OF GRAMMATICAL CONDITIONS FOR USING THE DUMNEAVOASTRĂ VERSUS TU IN ROMANIAN

4. THE QUESTION OF DISTANCE ARISING FROM THE USE OF DUMNEAVOASTRĂ IN TRANSLATING THE LEGAL INTERVIEW INTO ROMANIAN

4.1. The implication of using dumneavoastră on the legal status of the addressee

4.2. The implication of using dumneavoastră in the progress of argumentative discussion

5. THE QUESTION OF DISTANCE ARISING FROM THE USE OF DUMNEAVOASTRĂ IN THE OFFICIAL WEBSITE

5.1. The implication of using dumneavoastră on the target readership of the present web page

5.2. Other indicators supporting the use of dumneavoastră in the webpage

6. CONCLUSIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY



INTERPRETARE CONSECUTIVĂ

I. Ofiţerul de imigrare

V-am arestat astăzi mai devreme pe baza suspiciunii de intrare cu bună ştiinţă şi fără intenţia de plecare din Regatul Unit // contrar secţiunii 24(a) a Legei de Emigrare din 1971. // Vreau să vă pun acum câteva întrebări în legătură cu acest incident. // Vreau să vă spun că nu sunteţi obligat să spuneţi nimic // totuşi, poate să dăuneze apărării dumneavoastră dacă nu menţionaţi, când sunteţi întrebat, ceva pe care ulterior vă veţi baza la instaţa de judecată. // Orice spuneţi poate fi dat ca mărturie. // Înţelegeţi?

1. Deţinutul / Deţinuta (în stare de arest preventiv)

Da.

II. Ofiţerul de imigrare

Şi înţelegeţi că acest interviu se înregistrează pe bandă magnetică?

2. Deţinutul / Deţinuta (în stare de arest preventiv)

Da.

III. Ofiţerul de imigrare

Aţi fost găsit dimineaţa aceasta ascuns împreună cu alte unsprezece persoane într-un camion care tocmai a ajunsese în Anglia din Franţa. // Ce căutaţi acolo?

3. Deţinutul / Deţinuta (în stare de arest preventiv)

Am fost puşi în spatele camionului de către nişte oameni // şi ni s-a spus că vom fi scoşi din nou când ajungem în Anglia.

IV. Ofiţerul de imigrare

De ce aţi venit în Anglia?

4. Deţinutul / Deţinuta (în stare de arest preventiv)

Pentru că oamenii aceia au vrut să venim.

V. Ofiţerul de imigrare

Spuneţi că nu sunteţi aici din voinţă proprie?

[…]
INTERPRETARE CONSECUTIVĂ

VI. Ofiţerul de imigrare

Cine erau bărbaţii care v-au băgat în lăzi?

6. Deţinutul / Deţinuta (în stare de arest preventiv)

Nu ştiu, dar îi cunoşteau pe bărbaţii care m-au ţinut captivă. // I-am auzit vorbind şi era clar că au mai făcut aceasta de multe ori.

VII. Ofiţerul de imigrare

Şoferul camionului era conştient că vă aflaţi în lăzi în camionul său?

7. Deţinutul / Deţinuta (în stare de arest preventiv)

Repet, nu ştiu pentru că nu n-am văzut deloc cine conducea camionul.

VIII. Ofiţerul de imigrare

Aveţi vreo idee unde eraţi luaţi?

8. Deţinutul / Deţinuta (în stare de arest preventiv)

Nu, numai că bărbatul care ne-a cumpărat trăia într-o vilă mare. // Nici măcar nu ştiu dacă acesta este adevărat sau nu, // este doar ceea ce mi-au spus.

IX. Ofiţerul de imigrare

Ziceţi „bărbatul care mă cumpărase” // de unde ştiţi că vă cumpărase?

9. Deţinutul / Deţinuta (în stare de arest preventiv)

Asta-i ce spuneau oamenii în magazie când i-am auzit vorbind. // Au spus că el mai făcuse afaceri cu ei înainte // şi că întodeauna plăteau bani buni // Ei vorbeau despre noi ca şi cum am fi vite vândute în piaţă. // Oameniii aceştia n-au nici un respect pentru oameni; // îi văd doar ca pe obiecte de făcut comerţ cu ele.



X. Ofiţerul de imigrare

Va trebui să le cer colegilor mei de la poliţie să ducă ancheta mai departe. // Rolul meu se concentrează asupra imigrării, dar din ce aţi spus este clar că cineva în ţara aceasta cumpără oameni ca dumneavoastră, // şi aceasta este o infracţiune.

10. Deţinutul / Deţinuta (în stare de arest preventiv)
Ce-o să mi se întâmple acum?

XI. Ofiţerul de imigrare

Deci, deocamdată o să fiţi reţinut aici în port în timp ce vă analizăm cazul. // O să vă găsim ceva haine potrivite să vă îmbrăcaţi // şi o să ne asigurăm că vi se dă mâncare şi băutură şi că sunteţi ţinut la căldură şi adăpost. // Voi merge acum să discut cazul dumneavoastră cu superiorul meu şi mă voi întoarce în scurtă vreme.


CETĂŢENII BULGARI ŞI ROMÂNI

Această pagină explică restricţiile care sunt impuse asupra cetăţenilor bulgari şi români care se angajează în Regatul Unit.

Dacă sunteţi cetăţean bulgar sau român sunteţi liber să veniţi să trăiţi în Regatul Unit. Trebuie să fiţi în stare să vă întreţineţi pe voi înşivă şi pe familia dumneavoastră în Regatul Unit fără ajutorul fondurilor publice.

Dacă doriţi să lucraţi ca angajat în Regatul Unit veţi avea nevoie de aprobarea noastră înainte de a începe munca. Detalii despre felul de muncă pe care o puteţi presta şi cum să solicitaţi permisiunea de a munci pot fi găsite în secţiunea: Bulgarian and Romanian nationals (cetăţenii bulgari si români).

Odată ce lucraţi legal ca angajat în Regatul Unit pentru 12 luni fără întrerupere veţi avea drepturi depline de liberă mişcare şi nu veti mai avea nevoie de aprobarea noastră de a lucra. Puteţi apoi obţine un certificat de înregistrare care confirmă dreptul dumeneavoastră de a trăi şi munci în Regatul Unit, deşi nu sunteţi obligat s-o faceţi. Detalii despre cum să solicitaţi certificatul de înregistrare pot fi găsite la applying page
(pagina de cerere).

Nu aveţi nevoie de aprobarea noastră dacă sunteţi liber-profesionist. Totuşi, puteţi solicita un certificat de înregistrare să vă confirmaţi dreptul de a lucra ca liber-profesionist în Regatul Unit, dacă doriţi. Mai multe detalii pot fi găsite la applying page (pagina de cerere).

Dacă sunteţi student în Regatul Unit vă puteţi angaja într-o slujbă de până la 20 de ore pe săptămână în timpul semestrului şi cu normă întreagă în timpul perioadelor de vacanţă a cursului dumneavoastră dar mai întâi trebuie să obţineţi un certificat de înregistrare care să confirme că sunteţi student. Mai multe detalii pot fi găsite la applying page (pagina de cerere).






1. INTRODUCTION

The accuracy required in interpreting and translating legal texts is very much stressed by training instructors in legal interpreting and by assessment bodies and interpreting and translating agencies in the UK and abroad. How does the distance in the speech act arising from the use of polite pronouns in Romanian affects this accuracy and what consequences does the choice of using them have on the addressee and his/her response in the process of communication? For understanding how the use of polite pronouns in Romanian affects the distance in the speech act, I will translate two different types of texts, namely, a legal interview and an official website into Romanian for Romanians who are considering immigrating to the UK. Both texts have specific features of constructing the interactive element and therefore the pronouns used have a different effect on the addressees.
In order to answer the previously posed question I will first look at the specific characteristics of the legal interview and official website pointing out some similarities and differences. Then I will take into account the grammatical conditions for using the polite pronoun dumneavoastră versus tu in Romanian for translating you (singular). After that I will consider the question of distance arising from the use of dumneavoastră in translating the legal interview into Romanian. Finally, I will study the question of distance arising from the use of dumneavoastră in the official website.

2. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE LEGAL INTERVIEW AND OFFICIAL WEBSITES TEXTUAL CHARACTERISTICS

In order to observe the distance that arises from the use of polite pronouns in Romanian, it is also essential to understand what makes these two different types of text distinct from each other. We have also to bear in mind that they are constructed with a purpose, namely, for the user interaction and provision of the required information in the case of the webpage, and as a way of triggering argumentation or interaction in the case of the legal interview.
When building a professional website the essential elements to take into consideration are the quality of the content, namely, what and how to incorporate information, the functionality of the design, that is how efficient is in helping the reader to find the right information, the clarity of the navigation which refers to how many links do you have and where they are located. The question to be considered here is whether the reader finds his/her way around easily. Emphasizing the need of targeted reader is of paramount importance as Jacobson advises towards the developing of the “persona” of the targeted users by identifying their Internet habits and what expectations do they have from such a webpage.
The interactive element in the website has one of the web master’s priorities when putting together the elements of the website and so deciding which of these elements will be beneficial for the positive response from the reader. Consequently, stimulating action is the element that refers to how the web master gets the people to react and get in touch with the service provider. The last elements are the free information that is how much information to offer and the website traffic. This last element refers to ways of getting people to know about the website and that can be done by word-of-month, search engine subscription and others.
The efficiency of an official website is closely connected with its capacity of offering the user the tools to interact with the content and to get the right information. The engaging factor is offered by the navigation systems which according to the model of Navigation Systems' Effects on Disorientation and Outcomes of Searching Web Sites has the capacity to lead the user to disorientation which can result to engagement with the navigation. However, the user’s engagement with the navigation can also lead to setting further intention to use the website depending on the user’s performance.
On the other hand, a legal interview, wherever being hold, at the police station, immigration office or in court involves the process of argumentation whose nature might be defined as two-sided involving the communicator of the uphold position and its active recipient. The latter responds to the argumentative provision of factual information which presents the position formed in order to divulge the level of persuasion acquired. This communicative interaction reveals the social dimension of the argumentative process. The dimension is clearly present even when communicator plays the role in both sides of the argumentative interaction being personally unsatisfied with the position hold and foreseeing the eventual public reaction.
Thus a successful argumentation involves at least one interaction between two language users engaged in an argumentative process which expresses their agreement or disagreement about the formulated standpoint and through the formalization of that conviction facilitates “the smallest complete dialogic unit.” The originally formulated opinion of the communicator through the argumentative process may be extended as a response to the recipient’s need for clarification with the supply of new arguments which may be defined as opinions. Objections raised by the recipient to the original argumentation may also be considered as opinions.

3. CONSIDERATION OF GRAMMATICAL CONDITIONS FOR USING THE DUMNEAVOASTRĂ VERSUS TU IN ROMANIAN

Although the use of plural form for the second person singular in order to express politeness is also common in other European languages as is the case of Russian when using “vy instead ty” or in French “vous instead tu” , in Romanian in addition to the “voi/tu” there is another set of pronouns often referred to as “polite or reverential pronouns” . Referring to the proper use of Romanian pronouns Deletant draws attention to the use of second person pronouns according to the number of people addressed and the speaker’s relationship to them. Therefore there is a polite pronoun for tu (you sg.), namely, dumneata and dumneavoastră and for voi (you pl.) – dumneavoastră which is composed from the noun domnia which means reign and the possessive adjective voastră which means yours. There will be enough clarity in the use of these pronouns if dumneavoastră would be strictly used for the plural form (you in English) but dumneavoastră can be used for both singular and plural forms of the personal pronoun you, so when addressing “one or more persons and when the person that is being addressed is superior in rank or age to the speaker” . Another situation when dumneavoastră is being used is when the speaker addresses a person of the same rank or a stranger but as Deletant points out “it does indicate a respectful, courteous attitude on the part of the speaker”.
It is essential to point out that the use of dumneavoastră (in written format often used abbreviations as dvs, dv or d-voastră ) requires the use of the second person plural of the verb, regardless of the number of people that the speaker addresses , and therefore it can indicate plurality even when the speaker addresses only one person and brings in plan the question of distance. Tu (you sg.) is an option for enforcing directness when addressing a stranger but at the cost of expressing aggression as Deletant observes in his explanation of Romanian pronouns. An option to escape the aggression and disrespect when addressing by tu in relation to a stranger may be by using dumneata which maintains the reverential attitude toward the addressee using dumneata (you sg.) = tu (second person singular) + “the attitude of politeness” . However, this option does not entirely deal with the distance since by the attitude of politeness implied by dumneata the distance is still present in the speech act and so does not completely represents the same semantic value of tu (you singular).



4. THE QUESTION OF DISTANCE ARISING FROM THE USE OF DUMNEAVOASTRĂ IN TRANSLATING THE LEGAL INTERVIEW INTO ROMANIAN

4.1. The implication of using dumneavoastră on the legal status of the addressee

The nature of politeness in English might be characterised by its potential for conveying positive or negative overtones depending of its usage as in a case when the guest expresses thankfulness and apologizes for the troubles caused to the host due to the visit. On the contrary, indirect speech acts usage demonstrates a communication of predominantly negative information in a different format, tragic news, diminishing judgment or disturbing opinions offering it not in an explicit manner. In addition to these considerations Austin points out the importance of utterance circumstances which can bring further clarification about the type of utterance one performs. Thus the unfavourable circumstances should be acknowledged as the present interview takes place in a rather uncomfortable location (in port after the person has been illegally trafficked to the UK) and in a rather disturbing situation (as a victim). As a result we have grounds to consider that the Immigration Officer would have induced a nuance of politeness through expressing the action performed on the subject which this time becomes the object of various actions. Hence the Officer does not utter an act of asserting as for instance ‘I accuse you off…’. Instead he uses ‘you were discovered’ and ‘do you have any idea where you were being taken?’ which places the subject in the position of object affected by someone’s actions.
The above mentioned examples are just few of the additional devices in English that support the translation of polite intention into Romanian in this particular interview. In this regard despite challenging the issue of proper distance in this interview I will try to maintain the politeness, respectful attitude toward the addressee which indirectly reflects his legal status at the time of interview and affects his interaction and participation in the process of communication. I do consider, however, that the distance in the speech act of this particular interview could not be endangered by the use of Romanian polite pronoun dumneavoastră because there are other devices which convey politeness. As it has been demonstrated in the example above such device bears the purpose of avoiding the blame through the use of passive verbs which according to Niyekawa-Howard are used to construct variable degrees between the speaker and the addressee being further enforced when used in conjunction with a causative.
The use of the polite pronoun dumneavoastră with its respectful connotations, however, enforces the citizen rights in this argumentative process as is the case in this present interview. The addressee is in right to preserve his dignity even more as he/she is not convicted of any offences. It may be considered that the addressee is rather the victim in this argumentative process as the Romanian specialized term clarifies further the status of the detainee through deţinutul/deţinuta (în stare de arest preventiv), who is in police custody and therefore not convicted. However as Berk-Seligson advises, the interpreter has to avoid supplementing himself/herself such a pronoun of politeness or other form of politeness from sympathy toward the addressee’s situation which may add undesired distance into the communicative process. Referring to Parkinson’s finding on the negative effects of politeness on jurors’ decisions, Berk-Seligson maintains that the defendants who use polite forms when addressing the jurors and use complete sentences are having higher chances to be acquitted.

4.2. The implication of using dumneavoastră in the progress of argumentative discussion

An element of politeness might be perceived as present in the indirect speech acts especially when the latter is delivered in the form of request, offer or even statement. However, the predominant element is that of intrusion defined in the disturbing for the hearer matter raised by the communicator in spite of his lack of such entitlement and in line with his incensed response to the hearer’s opinion. Therefore, we can consider the use of dumneavoastră instead tu as polite indirectness supported by verbs representing speaker’s attitude as in I now want to ask you some questions in relation to this incident. The interviewer could avoid using want before ask and then the directness and the pressure on the addressee could have been emphasized as: I ask you some questions in relation to this incident, and that could constitute an order. However, through the choice of including his intention, the interviewer implies politeness with the interest of gaining more participation from the addressee. My choice in translating this sentence into Romanian reflects my understanding of such an implied politeness due to this intentional indirectness indicated by the interviewer. That is why I have translated the above as: Vreau să vă pun acum câteva întrebări în legătură cu acest incident. Even though dumneavoastră is not present in this sentence in its complete form it is substituted by the reflexive particle vă which is also an indicator of plurality and at the same time as Deletant clarifies represents dumneavoastră as well because dumneavoastră demands the use of the second person plural of the verb regardless of the number of people addressed.
However, the use of reflexive particles are not always and indicator of politeness but clearly of plurality due to more than one person that the speaker addresses or speaks about. Implied politeness is excluded in the following example because the speaker talks about his/her abusers about whom he/she expresses a negative opinion. They were talking about us as if we were cattle being sold at market. Vorbeau despre noi de parcă eram animale vândute la piaţă. Therefore even though the indicators of plurality and distance are still maintained by vorbeau, the drop of the personal pronoun they by the Romanian interpreter could indicate politeness and the context in which vorbeau is used may exclude the presence of dumneavoastră. However for clarity and for underlining the lack of politeness in this particular example, in my translation I have maintained the personal pronoun they as ei and therefore I translated the example as Ei vorbeau despre noi ca şi cum am fi vite vândute în piaţă and so came closer to the completeness of the sentence: They were talking about us as if we were cattle being sold at market.
The originally formulated opinion of the communicator through the argumentative process may be extended as a response to the recipient’s need for clarification with the supply of new arguments which may be defined as opinions. Objections raised by the recipient to the original argumentation may also be considered as opinions. We, therefore, can notice how the repetitive element builds the comfortable atmosphere of politeness and thus when asking for clarification the interviewer gets additional information, You say ‘the man who bought you’ - // how do you know he bought you? Therefore, I have translated this sentence as: Ziceţi „bărbatul care mă cumpărase” - // de unde ştiţi că vă cumpărase? Ziceţi and vă are again indicators of the dumneavoastră presence and so trigger more clarification from the addressee. Another similar example of developing the dialog in this argumentative interview is the following question asked by the interviewer: Do you have any idea where you were being taken? Again this question starts with an introductory phrase as: Do you have any idea…? This prepares the listener for the actual message while it has the power to trigger more information and it may be considered as “a tact and diplomacy strategy”. I have translated this particular question as: Aveţi vreo idee unde eraţi luaţi? Once again I have maintained the presence of dumneavoastră this time reflected in the plurality of aveţi. The effect of such a strategy is always supported by the additional data provided by the addressee which of course satisfies the interviewer whose purpose is to get as many details as possible on the issue involved in the dialog.
5. THE QUESTION OF DISTANCE ARISING FROM THE USE OF DUMNEAVOASTRĂ IN THE OFFICIAL WEBSITE

5.1. The implication of using dumneavoastră on the target readership of the present web page

Bearing in mind that the web page referring to the Bulgarian and Romanian nationals is an official informational page part of The UK Border Agency website of the Home Office we can expect to encounter a general politeness toward the targeted readers. Its content meets the essential requirements of such a website as mentioned in the general consideration section of the present essay. Even though we will not refer to all these elements, having a holistic image of what a webpage should contain will very much contribute toward understanding the implication of polite forms on the target readership.
Through the very first sentence: This page explains the restrictions that are in place on Bulgarian and Romanian nationals taking employment in the United Kingdom we become aware that the groups of people to whom the information is being addressed are various and notice that at this stage the plurality is introduced by Bulgarian and Romanian nationals. However, in the following sentences we observe the shift from plurality to a personal level you while in English it still keeps the plurality element but it also establishes the interaction and the separation of the readership according to their situation (students, employed, self-employed or possible candidate to work in the UK). I have translated this you as part of sunteţi /you are which grammatically includes the plurality value but trough citizen/cetăţean I have enforced its personal use and so validating the statement for only one citizen while keeping the polite pronoun dumneavoastră present in sunteţi /you are. The very significant polite pattern in introducing the groups of readership in this particular webpage is the introductory phrase if you are/if you also referred to as ‘a tact and diplomacy strategy’. In a similar Romanian official website this phrase is not persistent which may lead to the conclusion that the reader is left with no choice but to identify himself/herself the suitable category that he/she fits into. In the Romanian official website dacă vă aflaţi/if you are [my translation] which in a direct translation would became if you find yourself [my translation] appears only once in the introductory sentence and afterwards the categories are listed without if you are. Therefore, here we have a case of restrictive distance offered to the reader and imposed through straight forward instruction to the reader to identify or locate his/her own category without the repetitive introductory phrase if you are.
However, the categories listed in Romanian website carry a similar degree of politeness to the English web page expressed through the presence of dumneavoastră in the second person plural of the verb that refers to aţi lucrat continuu/you have been working, you have double citizenship/ aveţi dublă cetăţenie. In my translation into Romanian of the present website, I have further expressed this politeness through the actual presence of the polite pronoun dumneavoastră as in: You will need to be able to support yourself and family in the United Kingdom without the help of public funds./ Trebuie să fiţi în stare să vă întreţineţi pe voi înşivă şi pe familia dumneavoastră în Regatul Unit fără ajutorul fondurilor publice. But even more, I have also introduced the if you introductory phrase representing the same distance as in the English text and consequently allowing the reader the option to check the other options or categories. Therefore I have translated: If you are a student in the United Kingdom as: Dacă sunteţi student în Regatul Unit, and so one can notice the presence of if/dacă.

5.2. Other indicators supporting the use of dumneavoastră in the webpage

As mentioned in the general considerations sections, the functionality of the website is materialised in the efficiency of how the information provided does respond to the reader needs and is dependent on his/her online habits, such as using the navigation materialized through the links in the website. Therefore, analyzing the links within the present page, one can notice that the reader is offered with a clear layout of the navigation, both on the left-hand side and right-hand side of the actual page content. Hence the reader is offered access to all helpful information and through the help of subcategories the reader can locate the page that he/she has accessed under the category: For European Citizens. Thus he/she is both offered the guidance to access the pages of similar content which may be the most helpful to the reader and he/she has the choice to read other information which is not strictly connected with the actual subject of work legislation for Romanians and Bulgarians. These indicators along with the additional links on the right-hand side offer more useful information to the reader and so imply the polite attitude of trusting the reader interest in knowing more about the related issues.
Concerning the Romanian webpage , all the categories are listed and explained while making use of the presence of dumneavoastră in the second person plural of the verb. However, instead offering direct links for the reader to have access of related themes of interest, one can notice the presence of the footnotes in the page, which is rather unexpected for a website and so implies that the web master/designer did not trust the Romanian reader’s online browsing capacities. Hence the web designer induces an attitude of lack of politeness diminishing readers’ abilities to use additional links and offers him/her a traditional/ essay like layout of the information. The additional links on the right-hand of the content are general links which are provided throughout the website and does not have immediate use to the reader interested in this particular subject.
In my translation of the web page content I have maintained the links and their original name, providing the Romanian correspondent in brackets, applying page (pagina de cerere) and the Bulgarian and Romanian nationals (cetăţenii bulgari şi români) because in the web page of the Home Office the actual pages exist in English only. If I would not keep their names as target pages for the link I would direct the reader to an inexistent page (blank page) displaying a server error. I have left the Romanian translation as not underlined because there is not such a page on the Home Office site and because the underlined words signify an active link. Therefore, in my translation I give credit to the assumed online habits and abilities of the Romanian reader and in the same time I provide him/her with the valid links where the reader can find additional information in English. Thus I offer the same distance and implied attitude of politeness as in the original web page.

6. CONCLUSIONS

In my present essay I have studied how the distance in the speech act arising from the use of polite pronouns in Romanian in the legal interview and official website affect the accuracy and what consequences does the choice of using them have on the addressee and his/her response in the process of communication.
Through looking at the specific characteristics of the legal interview and official website and pointing out some similarities and differences while taking into account the grammatical conditions for using the polite pronoun dumneavoastră versus tu in Romanian for translating you (singular), I have concluded that the use of dumneavoastră does not endanger the distance in the communicative act and the accuracy. Furthermore it is even recommended for the effects on the addressee versus tu which involves hostile attitude, as long as the translator or the interpreter identifies the presence of politeness through additional indictors (such as introductory phrases) in the original text and does not supplement himself/herself the presence of dumneavoastră through subjective emotional sympathy toward the addressee or his/her situation.

END NOTES

In order to be awarded a Band A mark in the Diploma in Public Service Interpreting examination the candidate should transfer all information without omissions, additions, and distortions. Chartered Institute of Linguists, Official Website, [online], Available at http://www.iol.org.uk/ qualifications/DPSI/DPSIHandbook.pdf, Accessed on 5 April 2008.
As Joan Colin and Ruth Morris present lawyers’ expectations from interpreters when they instruct them, ‘translate don’t interpret,’ and by translation they mean ‘word-for-word’ considering the act of interpreting as the process that the lawyers actually engage in. Joan Colin and Ruth Morris, Interpreters and the Legal Process (Winchester: Waterside Press, 1999; reprint, 2001), 17.
“Creating a Client-Attracting Professional Website,” Hudson Valley Business Journal 19/9 (March 2008): 17, EBSCO Host, [online], Available at http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=16&hid=101&sid=63dce82a-9122-43c6-9694-ac11b4cc7783%40sessionmgr108, Accessed on 6 April 2008.
Vicki B. Jacobson, “Build a Better Web Site,” PC Magazine, vol. 26, issue 21/22, 11 June 2007, 110, EBSCO Host, [online], Available at http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=14&hid=101&sid=63dce82a-9122-43c6-9694-ac11b4cc7783%40sessionmgr108, Accessed on 6 April 2008.
Creating a Client-Attracting Professional Website, 17, [online].
Jane Webster and Jaspreet S. Ahuja, “Enhancing the Design of Web Navigation Systems: The Influence of User Disorientation on Engagement and Performance,” MIS Quarterly 30/3 (Sep 2006): 667, EBSCO Host, [online], Available at http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=16&hid=101&sid=63dce82a-9122-43c6-9694-ac11b4cc7783%40sessionmgr108, Accessed on 10 April 2008.
Frans H. van Eemeren and Rob Grootendorst, Speech Acts in Argumentative Discussions: A Theoretical Model for the Analysis of Discussions Directed Towards Solving Conflicts of Opinion. Studies of Argumentation in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis (PDA), eds. Frans H. van Eemeren and Rob Grootendorst, vol.1 (Dordrecht-Holland: Foris Publications, 1984), 9.
Ibid.
Ibid., 10.
Alexander Krouglov, “Police Interpreting: Politeness and Sociocultural Context,” The Translator 5/2 (1999): 294.
Elena Berea-Găgeanu, et al., Limba română: Manual pentru clasele a IX-a şi a X-a. (Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, R.A, 1998), 115.
Dennis Deletant, Colloquial Romanian (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Plc, 1983), 36.
The semantic and stylistic nuances of the use of tu, dumneata and dumneavoastră are very well captured in relation to the affectivity the speaker puts in regard to the addressee. A good example is provided in Duduia Lizuca’s considerations toward the proper pronoun she uses in relation to Patrocle (her faithful pet). “Duduia Lizuca doesn’t call Patrocle tu because he is older and she respects him, neither dumneata, cold word that sets distance, nor the formal dumneavoastră.”[my translation]. Extract from G. Ibrăileanu, M. Sadoveanu, Dumbrava Minunată, citat în Elena Berea-Găgeanu, et al., Limba română: Manual pentru clasele a IX-a şi a X-a. (Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, R.A, 1998), 116.
E. Berea-Găgeanu, et al., Limba română: Manual pentru clasele a IX-a şi a X-a., 115.
D. Deletant, Colloquial Romanian, 36.
Ibid.
Tatiana Cartaleanu şi Olga Cosovan, Româna pentru toţi (Bucureşti: Litera Internaţional, 2003), 111.
D. Deletant, Colloquial Romanian, 36.
Ibid.
Dumitru Irimia, Gramatica limbii române, Ediţia a II-a (Bucureşti: Polirom, 2004), 109.
Alice Davison, “Indirect Speech Acts and What to Do with Them,” in Syntax and Semantics: Speech Acts, eds. Peter Cole and Jerry L. Morgan, vol.3 (London: Academic Press, 1975), 153.
J. L. Austin, How to Do Things with the Words: The William James Lectures Delivered at Harvard University in 1955, ed. J. O. Urmson (London: Oxford University Press, 1962; reprint, 1970), 76.
Susan Berk-Seligson, The Bilingual Courtroom: Court Interpreters in the Judicial Process (London: The University of Chicago Press, Ltd, 2002), 99.
Ibid., 109.
Ibid., 149.
A. Davison, Indirect Speech Acts and What to Do with Them, 153.
D. Deletant, Colloquial Romanian, 36.
Transcript of the Romanian interpreted text of consecutive interpretation section of the Examination Papers, Track 3, CD 1, Romanian-Law, June 2003, The Institute of Linguists Educational Trust, provided on instructional CD by Global Language Services Ltd as supplementary preparatory material for the Diploma in Public Service Interpreting.
F. H. van Eemeren and R. Grootendorst, Speech Acts in Argumentative Discussions, 10.
Classified as such by Goodale Malcolm and provided by David Katan, Translating Cultures: An Introduction for Translators, Interpreters and Mediators, 2nd ed. (Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing, 2004), 314.
UK Border Agency: Home Office, Bulgarian and Romanian Nationals, [online], Available at http://www.bia.homeoffice.gov.uk/eucitizens/bulgarianandromaniannationals/, Accessed on 1 April 2008.

Classified as such by Goodale Malcolm and provided by D. Katan, Translating Cultures: An Introduction for Translators, Interpreters and Mediators, 314.
Categorii de persoane care beneficiază de accesul liber pe piaţa muncii, [online], Available at http://londra.mae.ro/index.php?lang=ro&id=66568, Accessed on 9 April 2008.
Ibid.
UK Border Agency: Home Office, Bulgarian and Romanian Nationals, [online].
Categorii de persoane care beneficiază de accesul liber pe piaţa muncii, [online].



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Austin, J. L. How to Do Things with the Words: The William James Lectures Delivered at Harvard University in 1955. Edited by J. O. Urmson. London: Oxford University Press, 1962; reprint, 1970.

Berea-Găgeanu, Elena, Doina Moigrădeanu, Florin D. Popescu şi Cezar Tabarcea. Limba română: Manual pentru clasele a IX-a şi a X-a. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, R.A, 1998.

Berk-Seligson, Susan. The Bilingual Courtroom: Court Interpreters in the Judicial Process. London: The University of Chicago Press, Ltd, 2002.

Cartaleanu, Tatiana şi Olga Cosovan. Româna pentru toţi. Bucureşti: Litera Internaţional, 2003.

Categorii de persoane care beneficiază de accesul liber pe piaţa muncii. [online]. Available at http://londra.mae.ro/index.php?lang=ro&id=66568. Accessed on 9 April 2008.

Chartered Institute of Linguists, Official Website. [online]. Available at http://www.iol.org.uk/ qualifications/DPSI/DPSIHandbook.pdf. Accessed on 5 April 2008.

Colin, Joan and Ruth Morris. Interpreters and the Legal Process. Winchester: Waterside Press, 1999; reprint, 2001.

“Creating a Client-Attracting Professional Website.” Hudson Valley Business Journal 19/9 (March 2008): 17. EBSCO Host. [online]. Available at http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=16&hid=101&sid=63dce82a-9122-43c6-9694-ac11b4cc7783%40sessionmgr108. Accessed on 6 April 2008.

Davison, Alice. “Indirect Speech Acts and What to Do with Them.” In Syntax and Semantics: Speech Acts. Edited by Peter Cole and Jerry L. Morgan. Vol.3. 143-186. London: Academic Press, 1975.

Deletant, Dennis. Colloquial Romanian. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Plc, 1983.

Ibrăileanu, G., M. Sadoveanu. Dumbrava Minunată. Citat în Elena Berea-Găgeanu, Doina Moigrădeanu, Florin D. Popescu şi Cezar Tabarcea. Limba română: Manual pentru clasele a IX-a şi a X-a., 116. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, R.A, 1998.

Irimia, Dumitru. Gramatica limbii române. Ediţia a II-a. Bucureşti: Polirom, 2004.

Jacobson, Vicki B. “Build a Better Web Site.” PC Magazine. Vol. 26. Issue 21/22. 11 June 2007, 110. EBSCO Host. [online]. Available at http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=14&hid=101&sid=63dce82a-9122-43c6-9694-ac11b4cc7783%40sessionmgr108. Accessed on 6 April 2008.

Katan, David. Translating Cultures: An Introduction for Translators, Interpreters and Mediators. 2nd ed. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing, 2004.

Krouglov, Alexander. “Police Interpreting: Politeness and Sociocultural Context.” The Translator 5/2 (1999): 285-302.

Transcript of the Romanian interpreted text of consecutive interpretation section of the Examination Papers. Track 3. CD 1. Romanian-Law. June 2003. The Institute of Linguists Educational Trust, provided on instructional CD by Global Language Services Ltd as supplementary preparatory material for the Diploma in Public Service Interpreting.

UK Border Agency: Home Office, Bulgarian and Romanian Nationals. [online]. Available at http://www.bia.homeoffice.gov.uk/eucitizens/bulgarianandromaniannationals/. Accessed on 1 April 2008.

Webster, Jane and Jaspreet S. Ahuja. “Enhancing the Design of Web Navigation Systems: The Influence of User Disorientation on Engagement and Performance.” MIS Quarterly 30/3 (Sep 2006): 661-678. EBSCO Host. [online]. Available at http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=16&hid=101&sid=63dce82a-9122-43c6-9694-ac11b4cc7783%40sessionmgr108. Accessed on 10 April 2008.

Van Eemeren, Frans H. and Rob Grootendorst. Speech Acts in Argumentative Discussions: A Theoretical Model for the Analysis of Discussions Directed Towards Solving Conflicts of Opinion. Studies of Argumentation in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis (PDA). Edited by Frans H. van Eemeren and Rob Grootendorst. Vol.1. Dordrecht-Holland: Foris Publications, 1984.



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