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polski > angielski

Joanne Haslett
Education & Academic specialist, MA PGCE

Wielka Brytania
Czas lokalny: 15:21 GMT (GMT+0)

Język ojczysty: angielski Native in angielski
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Usługi Translation, Editing/proofreading, MT post-editing, Website localization, Copywriting, Transcription
Znajomość dziedzin
Specjalizacja:
Edukacja/pedagogikaPoligrafia
Finanse (ogólne)Poezja i literatura
Sztuka, rękodzieło, malarstwoMechanika/inżynieria mechaniczna
KudoZ (PRO) Punkty PRO: 4, Odpowiedzi na pytania 1, Zadane pytania 1
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niemiecki > angielski: Multilingualism
General field: Nauki społeczne
Detailed field: Językoznawstwo
Tekst źródłowy - niemiecki
Mehrsprachigkeit bezeichnet die Fähigkeit eines Menschen, mehr als eine Sprache zu sprechen oder zu verstehen. Auf eine Familie, soziale Gruppe, Kultur, Gesellschaft, ein Gebiet oder einen Staat bezogen versteht man unter diesem Begriff die Geltung und die verbreitete oder übliche Verwendung mehrerer Sprachen nebeneinander durch die beteiligten Personen oder Institutionen. Bei Informationssystemen, Anleitungen, Schildern und dergleichen spricht man von Mehrsprachigkeit, wenn diese parallel in mehreren Sprachen zur Verfügung stehen.
Der weitaus größte Teil der Menschheit wächst mehrsprachig auf und lernt im Kindesalter mehrere Sprachen mühelos. Ein weiterer großer Anteil der Menschen lernt im fortgeschrittenen Alter von acht bis zehn Jahren oder danach mindestens eine Fremdsprache mit meist erheblich mehr Mühe und vergleichsweise weniger Erfolg.
Unter individueller Mehrsprachigkeit versteht man die Fähigkeit einer Person, sich in mehreren Sprachen verständigen zu können. Die Person kann von einer Sprache in die andere umschalten, falls dies erforderlich ist, um beispielsweise eine Unterhaltung aufrechtzuerhalten (Siehe auch CodeSwitching, Code Mixing). Es geht mehr darum, dass die Person sich im Alltag in verschiedenen Sprachen verständigen kann, als dass sie jede Sprache perfekt beherrscht. Die Mehrsprachigkeit einer Person entsteht durch unterschiedliche Lernprozesse und ist abhängig von vielen äußeren und inneren Faktoren, wie zum Beispiel dem Alter, dem Ort, der Art und den Umständen, in denen sich eine Person befindet, als auch der Motivation der lernenden Person.
Der Erwerb kann sehr unterschiedlich sein. Einerseits kann ein Individuum simultan mehrere Sprachen erlernen. Dies ist der Fall, wenn zum Beispiel beide Elternteile unterschiedliche Sprachen sprechen. Er kann allerdings auch sukzessiv erfolgen, wenn ein Kind nach seiner Muttersprache eine andere Sprache, zum Beispiel in der Schule dazulernt. Der Erwerb kann ungesteuert sein, also beispielsweise im Rahmen der Alltagskommunikation erfolgen oder gesteuert, zum Beispiel mittels Unterricht. Man kann auch zwischen symmetrischer und asymmetrischer Mehrsprachigkeit unterscheiden. Bei erster beherrscht man die Sprachen gleich gut ohne dass, wie bei der asymmetrischen, eine Sprache weniger gut beherrscht wird.
Die individuelle Mehrsprachigkeit kennt viele Ursachen; zum Beispiel das Leben in Sprachgrenzgebieten, in sprachlich gemischten Regionen, Zusammenleben und Heirat mit Anderssprachigen, der Zugang zu höherer Bildung, der Glaube und die Zugehörigkeit zu einer Religion etc. (Yilmaz, 2004).
Tłumaczenie pisemne - angielski
Multilingualism refers to a person’s ability to speak or understand more than one language. In relation to a family, social group, culture, society, region or state, this term refers to the importance and widespread or customary use of several languages side by side by the person or institutions involved. In the case of information systems, instructions, signs and the like, one speaks of multilingualism if these are available in more than one language simultaneously.
By far the largest proportion of humanity grows up multilingual and learns several languages effortlessly in childhood. A further large proportion of people learns at least one foreign language from the age of 8 or 10 with considerably more effort and comparably less success.
Individual multilingualism refers to the ability of a person to communicate in several languages. Should it be necessary, the person can switch from one language to another, for example to maintain a conversation (see also Code-Switching, Code Mixing). Rather than a perfect command of each language, it refers to the fact that the person can communicate in several languages in day to day life. The multilingualism of a person comes about through various learning processes and relies on many external and internal factors such as age, location, the nature and circumstances in which a person finds themselves, as well as the motivation of the learner.
Acquisition varies immensely. On the one hand and individual can learn several languages simultaneously. This is the case, for example, when both parents speak different languages. It can also take place successively, when a child learns another language after the mother tongue, such as at school. Acquisition can be uncontrolled, for example within the framework of daily communication, or controlled, such as by means of instruction. One can also distinguish between symmetrical and asymmetrical multilingualism. In the case of the former, one masters the languages equally well whilst with the latter, one language is less well mastered.
Individual multilingualism has many causes; for example, living in areas bordering different languages, in linguistically mixed regions, living with and marrying people who speak other languages, access to higher education, belief in and belonging to a religion etc. (Yilmaz, 2004).
szwedzki > angielski: First World War
General field: Nauki społeczne
Detailed field: Historia
Tekst źródłowy - szwedzki
Första världskriget var en världsomspännande militär konflikt centrerad i Europa som började den 28 juli 1914 och varade till den 11 november 1918. Denna konflikt engagerade alla av världens stormakter, samlade i två motsatta allianser. De allierade (centrerad kring Ententen; Storbritannien, Frankrike och Ryssland) och Centralmakterna (ursprungligen centrerad kring trippelalliansen; Tyskland, Österrike-Ungern och Italien). Mer än 70 miljoner soldater, däribland 60 miljoner européer, mobiliserades i ett av de största krigen i historien. Mer än nio miljoner soldater dödades, vilket främst beror på stora tekniska framsteg i eldkraft utan motsvarande inom rörlighet. Det var den sjätte dödligaste konflikten i världshistorien och banade därefter väg för olika politiska förändringar såsom revolutioner i de berörda länderna.
Långsiktiga orsaker till kriget inkluderar stormakternas imperialistiska utrikespolitik i Europa, inklusive Brittiska imperiet, Kejsardömet Tyskland, Österrike-Ungern, Osmanska riket, Kejsardömet Ryssland, Frankrike och Italien. Mordet den 28 juni 1914 på ärkehertig Franz Ferdinand av Österrike, tronarvinge i Österrike-Ungern, av en serbisk nationalist var den omedelbara utlösande orsaken till kriget. Det resulterade i ett ultimatum till Kungariket Serbien. Med Tysklands stöd formulerade Österrike-Ungern ett ultimatum som Serbien i princip inte kunde acceptera. Med stöd av Frankrike uppmuntrade Ryssland Serbien att avvisa Österrikes ultimatum. Flera allianser som bildats under de tidigare decennierna åkallades och inom några veckor låg stormakterna i krig. Via stormakternas kolonier spred sig konflikten snart över världen.
Den 28 juli inleddes konflikten med den österrikisk-ungerska invasionen av Serbien, följt av Rysslands allmänna mobilisering den 30 juli. Den 1 augusti såg sig Tyskland tvingat att mobilisera och därpå följde den tyska invasionen av Belgien, Luxemburg och Frankrike, och en rysk attack på Tyskland. Efter att den tyska marschen mot Paris stoppats, hamnade västfronten i ett statiskt utmattningskrig med en skyttegravslinje som knappt kom att förändras fram till 1917. I öst kämpade den ryska armén framgångsrikt mot det österrikisk-ungerska styrkorna men tvingades tillbaka av den tyska armén. Ytterligare fronter öppnades efter att det osmanska riket gick med i kriget 1914, Italien och Bulgarien 1915 och Rumänien 1916. Kejsardömet Ryssland kollapsade 1917, och Ryssland lämnade kriget efter Oktoberrevolutionen senare samma år. Efter en tysk offensiv längs västfronten 1918 inträdde USA i kriget och de allierade motade tillbaka de tyska arméerna i en serie av framgångsrika offensiver. Tyskland, som hade egna problem med revolutionärer vid denna tidpunkt, kom överens om en vapenvila den 11 november 1918, senare känd som Stilleståndsdagen. Kriget avslutades med seger för de allierade.
När kriget avslutades hade fyra stora imperier – tyska, ryska, österrikisk-ungerska och det osmanska imperiet – blivit militärt och politiskt besegrade och upphörde att existera. Efterföljande stater i de tidigare två förlorade en stor del av dess territorium, medan de två senare avvecklades helt. Centraleuropas kartbild fick ritas om i många mindre stater.[19] Nationernas Förbund bildades i hopp om att förhindra en ytterligare sådan konflikt. Den europeiska nationalismen som uppkom ur kriget och upplösningen av imperier och återverkningarna av Tysklands nederlag och Versaillesfreden är allmänt accepterade faktorer som bidrog till andra världskriget.
Tłumaczenie pisemne - angielski
The First World War was a global military conflict centred on Europe which began on the 28th July 1914 and continued until the 11th November 1918. All the world’s most powerful nations were engaged in the conflict, forming two opposing alliances. The Allies (focused around the Entente; Great Britain, France and Russia) and the Central Powers (originally focused around the triple alliance; Germany, Austro-Hungary and Italy). More than 70 million soldiers, including 60 million European, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. More than 9 million soldiers were killed, largely due to the huge technical advances in firepower which were unmatched in terms of mobility. This was the seventh deadliest conflict in world history and paved the way for various political changes such as revolutions in the affected countries.
Long term causes of the war include imperialistic foreign policy on the part of the world powers, such as the British, German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and Russian Empires, France and Italy. The murder of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austro-Hungary, on the 28th June 2914 by a Serb nationalist was the direct catalyst for the outbreak of war. It resulted in an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. With Germany’s support, Austro-Hungary prepared an ultimatum which Serbia, in principle, could not accept. With the support of France, Russia encouraged Serbia to reject Austria’s ultimatum. Several alliances which had formed over the previous decades were invoked and within a few weeks, the world powers were at war. By means of the great powers’ colonies, the conflict quickly spread across the globe.
The conflict began on the 28th July with the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia, followed by Russia’s general mobilisation on the 30th July. The 1st August saw Germany forced to mobilise and thereafter followed the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France, as well as a Russian attack on Germany. Once the German march on Paris was halted, the Western Front found itself in a
stalemate war of attrition with trench lines which barely moved until 1917. In the East, the Russian army made successful advances on the Austro-Hungarian forces but were forced back by the German army. Further fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire joined the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915 and Romania in 1916. The Russian Empire collapsed in 1917 and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year. After a German offensive along the Western Front in 1918, the USA entered the war and the Allies drove back the German army in a series of successful offensives. Germany, which had its own problems with revolutionaries at that point, agreed to a ceasefire on the 11th November 1918, which later became known as Armistice Day. The war ended in victory for the Allies.
At the end of the war, four large empires – German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and the Ottoman – had become militarily and politically defeated and ceased to exist. The subsequent states of Germany and Russia lost large parts of their territory, whilst the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires were completely liquidated. The map of central Europe was redrawn with far fewer states. The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing any further such conflict. The European nationalism and dissolution of empires and the consequences of Germany’s defeat and the Treaty of Versailles are commonly accepted factors which contributed to the Second World War.

Wykształcenie Master's degree - University of Sheffield
Doświadczenie Lata doświadczenia jako tłumacz: 3. Zarejestrowany od: May 2019.
ProZ.com Certified PRO certificate(s) N/A
Poświadczenia kwalifikacji niemiecki > angielski (Institute of Translation and Interpreting)
szwedzki > angielski (Institute of Translation and Interpreting)
szwedzki > angielski (University of Portsmouth)
niemiecki > angielski (University of Portsmouth)
Przynależność do organizacji ITI, CIOL
Oprogramowanie N/A
Professional objectives
  • Meet new translation company clients
  • Meet new end/direct clients
  • Work for non-profits or pro-bono clients
  • Network with other language professionals
  • Get help with terminology and resources
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  • Get help on technical issues / improve my technical skills
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Bio
I am an organised, reliable and highly creative individual with extensive experience of working in fast-paced educational environments in the UK and across Europe.  An experienced teacher and researcher, I offer specialist translation services in educational materials for all ages, academic texts across history, politics and social sciences as well as business communications, tourism and technical texts. Alongside translation, I offer proofreading to ensure linguistic accuracy and style, revising and editing English text and adapting for the UK market. 
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Język (PRO)
szwedzki > angielski4
Wiodąca dziedzina ogólna (PRO)
Technika/inżynieria4
Wiodąca dziedzina szczegółowa (PRO)
Elektronika4

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Słowa kluczowe: Swedish, German, education, publishing, university, academic, history, politics, social science, freelance, computers, software, copy writing, editing, localisation, localization


Ostatnia aktualizacja profilu
Oct 14, 2020






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